Improve disaster management processes through better networking and cooperation between public and private actors and a better understanding of the role which each of these actors plays in the different disaster management stages


The Sendai framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 has clearly mention intersectoral collaboration as being a key area for improving disaster management processes. The Sendai framework has supported the idea of creating frameworks enabling different social actors, such as public and private organisations, civil society organisations and the academia, to work more closely together, identify opportunities for collaboration and integrate disaster risks into business practices. However, to achieve this is the government’s responsibility to assume a leadership and coordinating role, designing and implementing policies and regulations which would facilitate the creation of such a collaboration framework.

Applicable to:

Stakeholders: Policy Makers, Disaster Managers

Disaster Phases: Preparedness, Response, Recovery

Types of Actors Concerned: Non-active citizens, Active citizens, Entrepreneurs, Media, Government, NGOs, Military, Red Cross, Law enforcement agencies, UN and other international organisations, European Civil Protection Mechanism, National civil protection bodies, Local authorities, Healthcare and emergency services

Hazards: Natural hazards, Man-made non-intentional hazards or emergency situations, Man-made intentional hazards

Cultural Map Entries:

Citizen participation as a norm to facilitate empowerment

Measures to ensure collaborative partnerships between communities and DMAs

The CBDM approach during the capacity development stage

NGO roles in disaster management

Participatory approaches concerning development agencies

General association with cultural factors: Social networks

Implementation steps:

A. Pay more attention to the drivers of disasters and the underlying causes of vulnerability, in order to prioritize these elements in disaster management policy and planning.

B. Pursue humanitarian diplomacy as a means of preventing and reducing vulnerability.

C. In the preparedness stage, it is important to have effective and transparent regulations in the field of disaster management. Related cultural factors: Rule of law

D. Policy-makers and disaster managers should monitor that safety measures and practices for “worst-case” scenarios are enforced and provide incentives for compliance with these measures, both within and outside the private sector. Related cultural factors: Rule of law

E. Encourage coordination and collaboration in the field of disaster management among public and private organisations at the international, regional, national and local levels, by setting-up efficient information flows among these stakeholders, in order to build capacity and capability in case of natural and-made disasters. This will facilitate rapid decision-making and will ensure that every actor is clear as to the role they must play in all stages of disaster management. The interaction among actors will also help build trust among all stakeholders concerned. Related cultural factors: Social networks

F. Always involve state actors in the recovery stage as true recovery is difficult without the assistance of state planning.

G. Compile, assess and apply lessons learned from disaster management with the help of ICT as part of the REX (Return on experience) process.

H. Pay attention to management of effort spent on disaster relief to avoid overlapping and duplication of efforts.

I. Consider the possibility to combine the insurance and disaster prevention policy to support disaster risk reduction.

J. Incorporate more effectively insurance schemes in disaster risk management by educating citizens’ education in this respect and raising awareness of the importance of the issue.


Further reading:

Denef, S. et al., 2012. Best Practice in Police Social Media Adaptation.

European Commission, Green Paper on the Insurance of Natural and Man-made Disasters, COM (2013)213 accessed 7 May 2016.

Ewert, C. J. (2014). Community-based Disaster Management. In A. E. Weaver & B. Guenther (Eds.), Intersections. MCC Theory and Practice Quarterly (Vol. 2, Issue 4. Fall. ): Mennonite Central Committee.

Figueroa, P. M. (2013). Risk communication surrounding the Fukushima nuclear disaster: an anthropological approach. Asia Europe Journal, 11(1), 53-64.

IFRC (2010). Strategy 2020. Saving Lives, Changing Minds. Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

IFRC (2016). World Disasters Report 2016. Resilience: saving lives today, investing for tomorrow, Available at:

Joerin, Jonas and Lue, Yuner, ‘Experiences of Private Sector Involvement in DRR in Europe: Focus on Insurance’ in Takako Izumi and Rajib Shaw (Eds.), Disaster Management and Private Sectors: Challenges and Potentials (Springer 2015), 74.

Oliver-Smith, A. (2015). Conversations in catastrophe: neoliberalism and the cultural construction of disaster risk. In F. Kruger, G. Bankoff, T. Cannon, B. Orlowski & E. L. F. Schipper (Eds.), Cultures and Disasters. Understanding Cultural Framings in Disaster Risk Reduction. Abingdon: Routledge.

Van Roosebeke, Bert, Baran, Anne-Kathrin and Kiesow, Ariane, ‘EU Green Paper Disaster Insurance’ (2013) CEP PolicyBrief No. 2013-47; GDV, ‘Green Paper on Natural Disasters Natural Hazard Insurance: EU Commission missed opportunity’ (2013).

Surminski, S., ‘Reflection on the Current Debate on How to Link Flood Insurance and Disaster Risk Reduction in the European Union’ (Fondazione Eni Enrizo Maattei 2015).

Surminski, Swenja et al, ‘Insurance Instruments and Disaster Resilience in Europe - Insights from the Enhance Project’ (2016) accessed 12 May 2016.

Vanderbiest, N., 2016a. Countering false online rumours. Crisis Response Journal, 12(2).

Vanderbiest, N., 2016b. Le mécanisme des rumeurs durant les attentats. Le cas de Nice. Available at:

White, M. Connie, Social Media, Crisis Communication, and Emergency Management: Leveraging Web 2.0 Technologies, CRC Press, 2011.

Yasin, Rutrell, 5 ways to use social media for better emergency response, 2010, available at