General association with cultural factors: Gender roles
A. Risk assessments should include a detailed analysis both of all vulnerabilities that could lead to a disaster and the preventable impacts, including the root causes and pressures generating and sustaining hazards and processes that could trigger a disaster.
B. Cultural factors, e.g. belief systems, perception of risk or propensity to act on risks, should be reflected in the risk assessments. To help communities identify these objectively, one can use external “facilitators” using tools such as the Cannon’s matrix. Related cultural factors: Norms/values, Customs/traditions/rituals, Worldviews
C. Integrate a gender perspective along cultural diversity, age differences, and vulnerable groups issues into disaster risk management policies, plans and decision-making processes, including those related to risk assessment, early warning, information management, and education/training. Related cultural factors: Gender roles, Age-related roles, Social exclusion
D. When designing risk assessments methodologies consider that previous experience with particular disaster type modifies current risk behaviour: prolonged period since the last disaster as well as mild impact of the last disaster leads to underestimation. Recent man-made disasters will influence citizens even when they happened in remote locations.
E. Pay additional attention to the communities that are experiencing certain disaster type for the first time as suboptimal behaviours might be expected.
F. Use risk comparisons, in which an unfamiliar risk is contrasted with a more common one, to encourage individuals to use their response to the familiar situation as a guide to action in the new one.
G. Analyse risk by incorporating social dimensions, including gender, race, ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation (e.g. understanding the structural factors and institutional interests), when defining whether a phenomenon could be perceived as a risk. Related cultural factors: Gender roles, Age-related roles, Ethnicity, Social exclusion, Socia-economic status
H. Integrate the sociological approach with empirical studies from psychology, to understand the risk perception in its complexity.
I. Studying factors (including sociological, structural factors and institutional interests) that influence people’s assessment of risk will help disaster managers design more effective risk mitigation procedures and improve risk communication strategies to encourage risk protective behaviour. Related cultural factors: Communication
J. Compare risk perception across different countries i.e. different systems of government or social groups, to test whether a factor influences risk perceptions.
K. Distinguish between personal and general risk perception, to identify more correctly the perception of the risk.
L. Research risk, while including the investigation of values and norms, bearing in mind that these guide behavioural responses in disasters.
M. Timely manage the extreme level of fear, as this influence citizens’ response behaviour during a disaster.
N. Disaster managers should accept and engage with different logics and rationalities that people rely on when faced with risks. Instead of assuming that people are “irrational”, they should instead accept that they have different rationalities.
- Deliverable 4.1: Mapping risk perception in the context of disasters - CARISMAND
- pdf, 2.2 MB
- Deliverable 4.2: Report on “risk cultures” in the context of disasters - CARISMAND
- pdf, 1.8 MB
- Deliverable 7.3: Report on cultural factors and citizen empowerment - CARISMAND
- pdf, 2.4 MB
- Deliverable 8.1: Report briefing on risk communication models and best practices - CARISMAND
- pdf, 2.5 MB
Bankoff, G., Cannon, T., Krüger, F., & Schipper, E.L.F. (2015). Introduction: Exploring the links between cultures. In F. Krüger, G. Bankoff, T. Cannon, B. Orlowski, & E.L.F. Schipper (Eds.), Cultures and Disasters: Understanding cultural framings in disaster risk reduction (pp. 1–17). London and New York: Routledge.
Cannon, T. Schipper, E. L. F. Bankoff, G. & Kruger, F. (2014). World Disasters Report 2014. Focus on culture and risk. Lyon, France.
Clarke, L. (1989). Acceptable Risk? Making decisions in a Toxic Environment. Berkeley: University of California Press.
HelpAge International. (2000). Older people in disasters and humanitarian crises: Guidelines for best practice. London.
Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. Available at https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/1037.
Miller, J. L. (2012). Psychosocial Capacity Building in Response to Disasters: Columbia University Press.Warner, J., & Engel, K. (2014). Disaster culture matters. Ambiente & Sociedade, 17, 1-8.