Due to different definitions used in disaster-related literature, for the purpose of this Toolkit the main terms used are defined below. The full Glossary can also be downloaded in a .pdf format (see User Guide Section).
Man-made intentional hazards are hazards where the cause is intentional but also complex, i.e.
displacement of population;
terrorism and conflicts;
weapons of mass destruction; and
Man-made non-intentional hazards or emergency situations like people transportation and goods carrying, industrial, mining, nuclear and radiological accidents, threats to critical infrastructure, cyber vulnerabilities, massive fires and environmental threats that result in loss of life, disorders, social, economic and environmental deteriorations that occur as a result of human activities and triggering of natural disasters. The man-made non-intentional hazards could be divided into:
industrial hazards - technological accidents of an industrial nature involving industrial buildings, i.e.
chemical spill occurring during the production, transportation or handling of hazardous chemical substances,
collapse of industrial building or structure,
explosion involving industrial buildings or structures,
fire involving industrial buildings or structures,
gas leak involving industrial buildings or structures,
poisoning of atmosphere or water courses due to industrial sources, and
radiation involving industrial buildings or structures;
transport accidents - transport accidents involving all mechanized modes of transportation:
rail accidents; and
miscellaneous accidents - other accidents of a non-industrial or transport nature as collapse involving non-industrial buildings or structures, explosions involving non-industrial buildings or structures and fires involving non-industrial buildings and structures.
Media are public or private institutions or individuals that are responsible for spreading information about risk to the lay public. When assessing risk, people include in their expectancies about the typical severity of an event, personal subjectivities that can be influenced by media discourses. The CARISMAND Toolkit includes in this category both classical media and new channels of information dissemination (e.g. social networks, apps, blogs etc.).
Military is represented, for the purpose of disaster management, by all army personnel and infrastructure involved in disaster response and recovery.